The third section consists of reviews relating adrenergic function or dysfunction to the gamut of psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorders, and alcohol and drug abuse. In most of these reviews, references are cited that demonstrate abnormalities in levels of adrenergic neurotransmitters or their metabolites in CSF, plasma, or urine. Concomitantly, the authors review changes in receptor function as manifested by platelets. Most of the authors recognize and discuss the possibility that these abnormalities are not the sole cause of the condition in which they are studied and that these abnormalities are quite likely due to adjustments the organism makes to adapt to some other destabilizing factor. Some knowledge or insights are offered as to how these changes come about and how they may be related to symptoms of the disorder. Adrenergic dysfunctions in affective disorders, anxiety disorder, and drug abuse conditions lend themselves more to interpretations of the findings in terms of etiologies and mechanisms.