Although many of Kraepelin’s ideas have stood the test of time, his assertion that manic-depressive illness is episodic with interepisode normal functioning has not. In the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program, for example, one in 10 bipolar patients and one in five depressed patients remain chronically ill (2, 3). These findings refer to symptomatic status, that is, whether the patient is in a clinical episode, is in partial remission, or is in remission based on assessment of symptoms (such as mood, energy level, suicidal ideation, and rate of speech). But what happens with psychosocial status? Whether psychosocial functioning and cognitive functioning in particular return to premorbid levels over time in patients with mood disorders has received far less attention in the research literature. How well the patient can function in his or her day-to-day life is of great importance.