Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Bipolar spectrum disorders in patients diagnosed with velo-cardio- facial syndrome: does a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 result in bipolar affective disorder?
Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1541-1547.
text A A A
PDF of the full text article.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic assessment of psychiatric illness in patients diagnosed with velo- cardio-facial syndrome, a genetic syndrome that involves over 40 somatic anomalies, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders and is associated with a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11. METHOD: Subjects were referred for psychiatric diagnostic evaluation without regard to age or previous psychiatric history. In order to establish DSM-III-R consensus clinical diagnoses for patients who ranged in age from 5 to 34 years, the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents--Revised or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) was used. A review of available medical and psychiatric records and a clinical interview performed by two research psychiatrists to validate specific symptoms and syndromes reported in the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents--Revised and the SCID were used to elucidate the chronological appearance and duration of symptoms. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent (N = 16 of 25) of this unselected series of patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome met DSM-III-R criteria for a spectrum of bipolar disorders with full syndromal onset in late childhood or early adolescence (mean age at onset = 12 years, SD = 3). In addition, 20% (N = 5) met DSM-III-R criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while 16% (N = 4) met criteria for attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity. In contrast to previous reports of a high prevalence of schizophrenia, none of the patients was diagnosed with schizophrenia, and only four had psychotic symptoms during a phase of their illness, all in their 20s or 30s. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the prevalence of bipolar disorder in the general population is estimated to be 1.5% and that the average age at onset is 24, these findings support an unusually strong association between velo-cardio-facial syndrome and early-onset bipolar disorder and suggest that a gene deleted at the 22q11 chromosomal locus may be involved in its pathogenesis. If confirmed, these findings may provide a new and fruitful line of investigation into the molecular basis of bipolar spectrum disorders.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).




CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe

Web of Science® Times Cited: 257

Related Content
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 12.  >
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines