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Clozapine for treatment-refractory mania
Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:759-764.
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OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of clozapine for treatment-resistant mania was examined in a prospective trial for patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. METHOD: The subjects were 25 acutely manic patients with either bipolar disorder (N = 10) or schizoaffective disorder-bipolar subtype (N = 15) for whom lithium, anticonvulsants, and neuroleptics had been ineffective, had produced intolerable side effects, or both. After a 7-day washout, the patients were treated with clozapine monotherapy. They were evaluated over 13 weeks with the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) exhibited marked improvement on the Young Mania Rating Scale, and eight (32%) exhibited marked improvement on the BPRS. The bipolar patients as compared to schizo- affective patients, and the nonrapid as compared to rapid cyclers, had significantly greater improvement in total BPRS score. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that clozapine is an effective therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar and schizoaffective mania.

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