OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships
among cumulative lifetime trauma, recent stressful events, and presence and
severity of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in
Holocaust survivors and nonexposed comparison subjects. METHOD: Lifetime
trauma, recent stressful events, and presence and severity of PTSD were
assessed in Holocaust survivors (N=72) and comparison subjects ( N=19).
RESULTS: Survivors with PTSD (N =40) reported significantly greater
cumulative trauma and recent stress than survivors without PTSD (N=32) and
comparison subjects. Severity of PTSD symptoms, cumulative trauma, and
recent stress were significantly associated. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and
severity of current PTSD were related to having experienced stressful
events in addition to the Holocaust.