Melancholic depression? I can subscribe to the view that some expressions of depression (e.g., “normal” and “reactive” depression) may have evolutionary purpose, providing conservation/withdrawal advantages in encouraging people to withdraw from a competitive situation in which they are failing or as a submissive gesture to avert danger. However, the evolutionary advantages in melancholia are not readily apparent—if, as for schizophrenia, we position it as a medical disease. For example, Nesse (1) wrote that “diseases are not shaped by selection: they have no evolutionary explanation,” and, in relation to schizophrenia, the “causal finger actually points to recent environmental change rather than primarily to genetic etiology” (1, p. 471). Nesse more generally warns about “posing evolutionary explanations without trying to test them against alternatives” (1, p. 471). Kahn appears comfortable in suggesting that in ancient communities, melancholia may have been a “biological method of culling nonessential members from the tribe, thus allowing scarce resources to be shared” (p. 120) or, as he expresses more bluntly, “Take one for the team if you are too old or too ill” (p. 17). Such an interpretation could be criticized factually (e.g., melancholia is not loculated to the frail or elderly) and equally for its rather insensitive jocular tone.