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Schizophrenia-related and affective personality disorder traits in relatives of probands with schizophrenia and personality disorders
Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:435-442.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The possible heterogeneity of the schizophrenia-related personality disorder traits associated with DSM-III criteria for schizotypal personality disorder was investigated using the family history method. A familial relationship to schizophrenia was hypothesized for schizophrenia-related personality disorder traits without coexisting affective personality disorder traits, pure schizophrenia-related personality disorder traits. Alternatively, a familial relationship with borderline personality disorder was hypothesized for schizophrenia-related personality disorder traits with comorbid affective personality disorder traits. METHOD: Criteria for schizophrenia-related and affective personality disorder traits were used to assess the 588 nonpsychotic first-degree relatives of 55 chronic schizophrenic probands and 67 probands with personality disorders. The probands with one or more DSM-III personality disorders were categorized as having schizotypal personality disorder without borderline personality disorder (pure schizotypal personality disorder), borderline personality disorder without schizotypal personality disorder (pure borderline personality disorder), both disorders, or neither. RESULTS: The morbid risk of all cases of schizophrenia-related personality disorder traits was higher in relatives of probands with schizophrenia and pure schizotypal personality disorder than in relatives of probands with neither schizotypal nor borderline personality disorder; however, it differed only slightly from that observed in the relatives of probands with both schizotypal and borderline personality disorders and pure borderline personality disorder. In contrast, the risk of pure schizophrenia- related personality disorder traits was higher in relatives of probands with schizophrenia and pure schizotypal personality disorder, while the risk of coexisting schizophrenia-related and affective personality disorder traits was lower in both of these groups than among the relatives of probands with both schizotypal and borderline personality disorders and pure borderline personality disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer preliminary indications that schizotypal personality disorder features present without comorbid affective personality disorder traits may more specifically characterize the personality characteristics familially related to schizophrenia. Furthermore, they indicate that schizotypal personality disorder features as currently defined are found in relatives of patients other than those with schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder.

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