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Clinical and research implications of the diagnosis of dysphoric or mixed mania or hypomania
Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1633-1644.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed available evidence regarding the status of dysphoric or mixed mania as a distinct clinical state and formulated operational criteria for its diagnosis. METHOD: Studies of dysphoric mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder were analyzed with regard to clinical characteristics, prevalence, demographic features, course of illness, outcome, family history, associated conditions, biological tests, and response to biological treatment. RESULTS: Although some studies suggest that dysphoric and nondysphoric mania are similar conditions, others suggest that, compared with nondysphoric mania, dysphoric mania may be more severe; more likely to occur in women; more likely to be associated with suicidality, a younger age at onset, a longer duration of illness, higher rates of personal and familial depression, concomitant alcohol or sedative-hypnotic abuse, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, and poorer outcome; more frequently associated with cortisol nonsuppression; and less likely to respond adequately to lithium but perhaps more likely to respond to ECT or anticonvulsants. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial evidence suggests that dysphoric mania may be a distinct affective state. Contrary evidence, however, suggests that dysphoric mania may be a form of typical mania, a stage-related or severe form of mania, or a transitional state between mania and depression. Because the evidence may be inconsistent because of varying definitions of dysphoric mania among studies, the authors propose preliminary operational diagnostic criteria for the future study of dysphoric mania.

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