Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Cigarette smoking in schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology and medication side effects
Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1189-1194.
text A A A
PDF of the full text article.

OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to study the relationship between smoking status and clinical characteristics in schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Seventy-eight schizophrenic outpatients were assessed by a single rater using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and the Simpson-Angus Scale for extrapyramidal symptoms. Current smokers (N = 58) were compared with nonsmokers (N = 20) on clinical variables by independent t tests and chi-square tests. Differences in outcome variables were tested by multiple analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with smoking status and gender as factors and age, neuroleptic dose, and caffeine consumption as covariates. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of patients were current smokers and reported a mean of 19 cigarettes smoked per day. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers were significantly more likely to be men, to be younger, and to have had an earlier age at onset and a greater number of previous hospitalizations. Current smokers and nonsmokers received mean neuroleptic doses of 1160 and 542 mg/day (chlorpromazine equivalents); the difference was significant. Current smokers also displayed significantly less parkinsonism and more akathisia and had higher total scores on the BPRS. Overall multiple ANCOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for smoking status but not gender or the interaction between gender and smoking status. Univariate ANCOVAs demonstrated a significant main effect of smoking status only for the Simpson-Angus Scale score. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smokers receive significantly higher neuroleptic doses, in part because of a smoking-induced increase in neuroleptic metabolism. Smoking is also associated with significant reduction in levels of parkinsonism. Smoking status is a significant factor that should be considered in assessment of neuroleptic dose requirements and neuroleptic side effects.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).




CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe

Web of Science® Times Cited: 356

Related Content
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 58.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 58.  >
Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments > Chapter 10.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
APA Practice Guidelines > Chapter 5.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines
PubMed Articles