Nevertheless, our analysis and critique of Hoberman’s false equation does not detract from the value of the book to the extent that we should conclude there is nothing to recommend it. Black and Blue examines interesting territory. In fact, one of the book’s strengths is its extensive historical review of how African Americans have been viewed as medical subjects. The author documents numerous examples of what he refers to as “defamatory racial folklore,” wherein blacks were regarded as an infectious reservoir of disease, lacking in self-discipline and intelligence, biologically degenerate, submissive, primitive, savage, lazy, child-like, and sexually promiscuous. While it is impossible to know with certainty when and how these stereotypes were manifested in the medical care black patients received from white doctors, these disturbing descriptions of black people by white physicians are documented in the peer-reviewed medical literature from previous decades, including AJP. These characterizations were clearly made before the emergence of the concept of political correctness.