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Familial, obstetric, and other clinical correlates of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia
Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:479-483.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated possible antecedents of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia, particularly in terms of obstetric and genetic factors, and demographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of such anomalies in schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-one outpatients satisfying the DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia were examined for minor physical anomalies by using the Waldrop scale. These subjects were drawn from a group of 45 such patients whose cognitive function had been previously evaluated with Trail Making Tests A and B and whose biological mothers had been interviewed for any history of obstetric complications or family history of schizophrenia. RESULTS: Linear multiple regression analysis showed that higher scores for minor physical anomalies were associated with impaired cognitive flexibility on Trail Making Test B, family history of schizophrenia in a first- degree relative, maternal history of obstetric complications, smaller number of siblings, later position in the birth order, and male sex. A family history of schizophrenia was particularly associated with abnormalities of the mouth. The association between minor physical anomalies in the patients and obstetric complications in their mothers appeared to be confined to instances in which the mother had a history of bleeding in early pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical anomalies indicate early dysmorphogenesis in schizophrenia, particularly in males, which appears to be associated more reliably with genetic rather than obstetric factors and with cognitive impairment.

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