The authors examined the effects of verbal and visual feedback on
subjective awareness of involuntary movements in 20 chronic schizophrenic
patients. At initial evaluation only 25% of the patients were fully aware
of their movement disorder. Both verbal and visual feedback resulted in
significant immediate enhancement of awareness. However, assessment of
awareness 2 weeks later showed a return to prefeedback baseline levels.
Lack of awareness of involuntary movements was associated with a lack of
awareness of psychiatric disorder, and both were associated with a longer
duration of illness.