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Clinical forms of severe tardive dyskinesia
Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:895-902.
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Abstract

The authors describe 19 patients with severe tardive dyskinesia, 11 of whom had a diagnosis of affective or schizoaffective disorder rather than schizophrenia. Most patients had been receiving long-term neuroleptic treatment with few interruptions and had received only one or two different neuroleptics. Frequent eye blinking was the most prevalent prodromal sign of tardive dyskinesia (in seven patients). Four subtypes of tardive dyskinesia could be distinguished: choreoathetosis, tardive dystonia, blepharospasm, and tardive akathisia. Optimal pharmacotherapy most often consisted of combinations of neuroleptics, lithium carbonate, benzodiazepines, and antiparkinsonian drugs. However, after an average of 62 months, only five patients had markedly improved.

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