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The application of positron emission tomography to the study of panic disorder
Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:469-477.
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Abstract

Positron emission tomography was used to study eight patients with panic disorder who were vulnerable to lactate-induced panic, eight patients with panic disorder who were not vulnerable to lactate-induced panic, and 25 normal control subjects. Patients who were vulnerable to lactate-induced panic had several abnormalities in the resting, nonpanic state: an abnormal hemispheric asymmetry of parahippocampal blood flow, blood volume, and oxygen metabolism; abnormally high whole brain metabolism; and abnormal susceptibility to episodic hyperventilation. A hypothetical model for the neurobiology of panic disorder, involving the abnormal parahippocampal region and its afferent and efferent connections, is proposed.

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