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Historical comment on DSM-III schizoid and avoidant personality disorders
Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1344-1347.
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Abstract

The authors examine the DSM-III distinction between schizoid and avoidant personality disorders. This distinction is based on Millon's biosocial learning theory and his interpretation of Kretschmer's personality types. The authors argue that this separation of a continuous distribution is historically misconceived and serves to obscure the significant features of schizoid personality. They examine Kretschmer's conceptualization of schizoid personality for the implications it carries for the development of a classification of personality disorder, suggesting that Kretschmer's approach implies a "polythetic" model of personality disorder that conceptualizes disorders as categories of dimensions.

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