There are also a number of important practical issues that make the CAINS an important addition to the field. First, the CAINS provides much broader coverage of negative symptoms than some of the commonly used instruments, such as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (7) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (8). The expanded BPRS includes only self-neglect, blunted affect, and emotional withdrawal as items that assess negative symptoms, and the PANSS has little coverage of motivational or hedonic impairments outside the social domain. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms does cover the same major domains as the CAINS (2), but it does not make the same distinctions between anticipation and experience in the social, recreational, work, and educational domains. The CAINS was also developed using the largest standardization samples of any scale developed for the assessment of symptoms in schizophrenia, and it used participants analogous to those who would be recruited for typical treatment trials. The CAINS has excellent psychometric properties that provide it with good power and sensitivity for detecting both individual differences in symptom severity across individuals and for detection change over time. It also has the advantage of having structured probes and questions that help ensure that different clinicians and researchers will use the scale in the same way in different settings. Given that good reliability has a major impact on the ability to see changes in symptom severity as a function of treatment, this is an important advance for treatment trials. Standardized training videos are also available for helping train clinicians and raters on the use of the instrument, which few other rating scales have; such training materials will be very helpful for individuals who want to incorporate use of the CAINS into their clinical practice or research. The CAINS has already been translated into Mandarin, Cantonese, and French, allowing it to be used in international trials. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (9) also makes the important distinction between expected and experienced pleasure and includes structured probes. However, its test-retest reliability has been assessed only in relatively small samples of individuals with schizophrenia to date (9, 10).