In a previous article, the authors reported on 5 individuals who
developed psychoses after participation in Erhard Seminars Training (est).
Two additional cases are reported, and the combined case material is
discussed in terms of group and psychodynamic theories. The authoritarian
est leadership style may mobilize in trainees an overdetermined and
pathological reliance on identification with the aggressor. Such a
mechanism may be central to the production of psychiatric casualties,
particularly in individuals with defective ego boundaries. Future
controlled research is necessary to ascertain the rate of occurrence of
psychiatric disturbances associated with est and to test the authors'