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The relationship between parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia
Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:781-784.
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Abstract

The author analyzes parkinsonism and hyperkinesia in psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia before and during treatment with alpha- methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, a dopamine antagonist), biperiden (an acetylcholine antagonist), and baclofen (a GABA agonist); and in patients with paralysis agitans and L-dopa-induced hyperkinesia. AMPT and baclofen had similar influences on oral dyskinesia, resulting in reduced frequency, unchanged or slightly reduced amplitude, and increased duration of each movement. The author concludes that: 1) reduced dopaminergic activity may be the primary pathogenetic background for tardive dyskinesia; 2) dopaminergic hypersensitivity and/or cholinergic hypofunction is necessary before hyperkinesia breaks through; and 3) the neurotoxic effects of neuroleptics may be associated with age-dependent changes in nigrostriatal regions representing oral innervation.

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