Prevention of relapse following depression is a pressing research problem. The authors tested the efficacy of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline and psychotherapy, alone and in combination, in preventing the relapse of 150 neurotic depressed female patients. They found that patients receiving amitriptyline and little psychotherapy had a 12-percent relapse rate, compared to a 16-percent rate for those receiving more psychotherapy and no medication. There was no significant difference between drug therapy alone or drug therapy in combination with psychotherapy. However, psychotherapy was beneficial to patients with problems of social adjustment and interpersonal relations. The need for further research and implications for treatment are discussed.