The mode of action of the nonconvulsive current is still speculative. Only a small portion of the total energy reaches the intra-cranial contents and this apparently spreads through the cerebrum and deeper structures. Whether the effects noted are the result of action on the diencephalon or some specific portion of it is still an unresolved question.Electrostimulation is a safe, simple procedure particularly useful for outpatient treatment. Suggestions for making the procedure more practical are outlined. The immediate posttreatment period is particularly amenable to psychotherapeutic exploration and psychotherapy. Maintenance treatment can be continued for long periods without deleterious side-effects.The chief areas of usefulness are in certain paranoid schizophrenics, anxiety states, psychosomatic conditions, epilepsy in conjunction with standard anticonvulsant medication, and finally in combating the lethargic confused state resulting from either barbiturate action or convulsive therapy.