Six cats were made experimentally neurotic and were then subjected to cerebral electroshocks comparable to those used in clinical therapy. All of these animals showed a marked disintegration of inhibitions, phobias, compulsions and other neurotic patterns, with emergence of simpler, more normally readaptive behavior which could be further improved by guidance, retraining, and other corrective procedures. However, all of the neurotic animals and two normal controls subjected to the electroshocks also showed an impaired capacity for complex adaptations, with subsequent recovery in only 2 of the animals. In no case, however, could these deficits be correlated with corresponding histopathologic changes in the brain. The significance of these observations in relation to the clinical use of shock therapy is briefly discussed.