0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Article   |    
THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRICALLY INDUCED CONVULSIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS
B. K. BAGCHI; R. W. HOWELL; H. T. SCHMALE
Am J Psychiatry 1945;102:49-60.
View Author and Article Information

The Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Michigan.

The Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Michigan., Captain in the Medical Corps of the United States Army.

text A A A
PDF of the full text article.
Abstract

The relationships between different vanables incident to the program of electric shock treatment and electroencephalographic and clinical effects have been qualitatively and quantitatively worked out for 54 patients receiving such treatment for different types of mental disorders.Different types and degrees of postshock electroencephalographic changes are noted. In general, the degree of electroencephalographic changes varies as the number of shocks administered and inversely as the interval in days between the last shock and the postshock EEG. There are, however, definite individual differences in shock threshold and subsidence time in regard to the degree of postshock electroencephalographic changes and also individual differences in regard to emphasis on some types of postshock electroencephalographic changes, rather than on others, indicating a differential cortical response to shock.Fifty percent of the cases had normal and 50% borderline-abnormal preshock EEGs. Some having borderline-abnormal EEGs show a marked degree of postshock electroencephalographic changes but the difference between the two groups—the normal and the borderline-abnormal—is not proved significant in this respect. However, those who show some epileptoid features in their preshock EEG tend to exhibit rare or occasional larval spike-and-wave pattern following shock more than the normal group. A definite electroencephalographic similarity between the epileptic and shocked brain is noted.There is some tendency for the psychoneurosis with obsessive-compulsive features and depression to be more in the borderline-abnormal preshock EEG group than schizophrenia with depression or psychoneurosis with depression.Following a simple system of weighting degrees of improvement, lack of improvement and relapse, and calculating the index of efficiency of treatment and then the percentage of efficiency of treatment as compared with recovery, it is found that the percentage of efficiency of the electric shock treatment for the group as a whole at the time of discharge is 49% which indicates a definite improvement over the preshock status. A control group of 64 patients receiving no electric shock has demonstrated only 30.5% efficiency of the treatment they received. The difference between the results of these two types of treatment is statistically significant. Seventy-six percent of the patients who received electric shock and who could be followed up between four months and one year following discharge have retained or bettered their improvement status. It is believed that psychotherapy played an important role in the maintenance of the improvement, though not predominantly in its initiation. There is a statistical indication that patients having psychoneurosis with obsessive-compulsive and depressive features and the highest preshock abnormal and borderline EEGs profit by such treatment more as a group than schizophrenia with depression and schizophrenia without depression. There is a suggestion that patients with preshock borderline-abnormal EEGs profit more as a group by shock treatment than those with normal EEGs.No significant relationship has been discovered between the number of shocks administered and the percentage of efficiency of treatment.The necessity for working out intimate relationships between different variables in electric shock treatment for alarger number of patients is indicated to help in the proper selection of cases for treatment and the prediction of its success. The treatment of data as utilized in this study would greatly facilitate the comparison of results from different clinics.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Topics

seizures
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

+

References

+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Web of Science® Times Cited: 32

Related Content
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 27.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles