But few comments are necessary in summarizing this study. It is obvious that statistics are on the whole rather inadequate, but as far as one can learn from a study of such, Massachusetts has a rather low rate for the United States and a high rate compared with European countries. It also appears that although there was a definite increase in homicide for the 10 years prior to the war, figures since show no substantial increase in the last 40 years. In general, murder in Massachusetts may be looked upon as an unusual social phenomenon attributed, for the most part, to the low cultural level of immigrants received, and to a less extent to mental disease and unfortunate environmental conditions. The influence of the latter two upon the individual tends to simulate the first. As individuals, murderers tend to be of lower cultural level, but show a less degree of moral turpitude than thieves and sex offenders.