Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.
1. If you are not sure about an association, ask yourself whether your degree of certainty as to the main class (disregarding letter sub-heads) is better than 50-50. If so, classify it, otherwise mark it U (unclassified). Then, if you are better than 50-50 sure as to a sub-head, record it, otherwise simply leave it blank. The main classes are much more important than sub-heads.
2. No account is taken of speech-habits or verbo-motor forms. If an association can be classed in the named categories, it makes no difference how mechanical the association may be. Even Mutt-Jeff and bath-tub are contiguities, while sour-grapes is an adjective-noun association. But associations in which the response merely completes a compound word or a proper name, e. g., black-board, Rocky-Mountains, are excluded. The same exclusion applies in the occasional cases where the response is the first part of a compound word or proper name, e. g., House-White. Mere additions of suffixes, e. g., excite-ment, are excluded, while cases in which the stimulus is repeated together with some change in word-form, e. g., excite-excitement, are classed under 2-b. The decision as to whether a word is compound or not is sometimes arbitrary; the practice here followed is to consider hyphenated words as two words, and therefore to include responses which, together with their stimuli, form hyphenated words, when the association-type permits.
3. Class 1-d includes all those vague contiguities in which the response, instead of naming a specific adjacent object, seems rather to tell where the stimulus object is. Woman-dress is 1-a, but woman-Barnard is 1-d, because we could scarcely say that woman and Barnard are adjacent; Barnard rather tells where woman is.
4. Class 5 is meant to include that host of common pairs in which elements of contrast, contiguity, and similarity blend in various combinations-to an extent making necessary their exclusion from all such classes. Hammer-tongs, for example, has some elements of co-ordination, but equally clear elements of contiguity, while man-woman not only includes these elements but a contrast element as well. The rule is to put an association in one of the other classes if possible; but if it is a "common pair" (showing 25 or more on the "frequency tables") and not otherwise classifiable, put it here.
5. The difference between classes 7 and 9 is that in a supraordination the response names a class of things more inclusive than the stimulus, whereas in Class 9 the response names an abstract idea. Bible-book is a true supraordinate; but in Bible-religion we cannot say that Bible is a sort of religion; religion is the appropriate general idea associated with the specific stimulus.
6. The difference between classes 9 and 11-b is that in the latter class the abstract noun is a modifier showing the attribution of a certain quality to the stimulus; whereas Bible-religion is Class 9, Bible-holiness is Class 11-b.
7. When a noun-stimulus leads to an adjective-response which is not a true modifier, but merely a change of wording, e. g., feeble-weakness, the association is classed not under 8, but under 2-b. In the same way, weakness-feeble, would not be 11-a, but 2-b.
8. When a noun-stimulus provokes a noun-response naming a substance, it is always put under Class 10, never under 11-a, even when popular speech uses such a noun-response as an adjective, e. g., scissors-metal.
Subscribe Now/Learn More
Purchase Online access to this article for 24 hours
PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the
DSM-5 library, books,
journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists
and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research,
and professional development.
Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org
or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).
Web of Science® Times Cited: 77