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Gardner Murphy
Am J Psychiatry 1923;79:539-571.
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1. If you are not sure about an association, ask yourself whether your degree of certainty as to the main class (disregarding letter sub-heads) is better than 50-50. If so, classify it, otherwise mark it U (unclassified). Then, if you are better than 50-50 sure as to a sub-head, record it, otherwise simply leave it blank. The main classes are much more important than sub-heads.

2. No account is taken of speech-habits or verbo-motor forms. If an association can be classed in the named categories, it makes no difference how mechanical the association may be. Even Mutt-Jeff and bath-tub are contiguities, while sour-grapes is an adjective-noun association. But associations in which the response merely completes a compound word or a proper name, e. g., black-board, Rocky-Mountains, are excluded. The same exclusion applies in the occasional cases where the response is the first part of a compound word or proper name, e. g., House-White. Mere additions of suffixes, e. g., excite-ment, are excluded, while cases in which the stimulus is repeated together with some change in word-form, e. g., excite-excitement, are classed under 2-b. The decision as to whether a word is compound or not is sometimes arbitrary; the practice here followed is to consider hyphenated words as two words, and therefore to include responses which, together with their stimuli, form hyphenated words, when the association-type permits.

3. Class 1-d includes all those vague contiguities in which the response, instead of naming a specific adjacent object, seems rather to tell where the stimulus object is. Woman-dress is 1-a, but woman-Barnard is 1-d, because we could scarcely say that woman and Barnard are adjacent; Barnard rather tells where woman is.

4. Class 5 is meant to include that host of common pairs in which elements of contrast, contiguity, and similarity blend in various combinations-to an extent making necessary their exclusion from all such classes. Hammer-tongs, for example, has some elements of co-ordination, but equally clear elements of contiguity, while man-woman not only includes these elements but a contrast element as well. The rule is to put an association in one of the other classes if possible; but if it is a "common pair" (showing 25 or more on the "frequency tables") and not otherwise classifiable, put it here.

5. The difference between classes 7 and 9 is that in a supraordination the response names a class of things more inclusive than the stimulus, whereas in Class 9 the response names an abstract idea. Bible-book is a true supraordinate; but in Bible-religion we cannot say that Bible is a sort of religion; religion is the appropriate general idea associated with the specific stimulus.

6. The difference between classes 9 and 11-b is that in the latter class the abstract noun is a modifier showing the attribution of a certain quality to the stimulus; whereas Bible-religion is Class 9, Bible-holiness is Class 11-b.

7. When a noun-stimulus leads to an adjective-response which is not a true modifier, but merely a change of wording, e. g., feeble-weakness, the association is classed not under 8, but under 2-b. In the same way, weakness-feeble, would not be 11-a, but 2-b.

8. When a noun-stimulus provokes a noun-response naming a substance, it is always put under Class 10, never under 11-a, even when popular speech uses such a noun-response as an adjective, e. g., scissors-metal.

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