The study findings clearly demonstrated that the manifestation of symptoms meeting DSM-IV criteria for clinical disorders at age 3 was a robust marker of risk for disorders at age 6. Both homotypic and heterotypic continuity were demonstrated. Notably, having a disorder at age 3 was associated with an almost fivefold greater risk of having a disorder at age 6. Conversely, more than 50% of children who met criteria for a disorder at age 6 already had clinically significant symptoms by age 3. One limitation of the study was that the age 6 assessment was done by telephone rather than in person as was done at the age 3 assessment. Another was that the diagnosis was based on parental report and was not supplemented by observational data, thereby introducing possible bias that cannot be offset by child report (since young children have a limited ability to self-report on symptoms directly). It should be noted, however, that the use of parent informants in research diagnostic assessments of young children stands as the state of the art today, despite some promising efforts to develop feasible valid and reliable observational tools that map onto diagnostic algorithms (6). Notwithstanding these limitations, the study findings clearly add broad evidence supporting the relative stability, rather than transience, of early forms of psychopathology and therefore the importance of early identification and intervention.