The years 1894–1896, during which Freud published his two seminal papers on defenses, were the most anxiety-ridden of Freud’s life, which had a profound impact on the focus of his work at the time. By 1897, however, he had directed his focus elsewhere (very possibly as a defense mechanism), and his list of defenses went virtually ignored for a quarter of a century. In 1926, Freud’s “repression” lifted, and he wrote, “I have revived a concept . . . of which I made exclusive use thirty years ago when I first began the study of the subject [of anxiety] but which I later abandoned. I refer to the term ‘defensive process’ . . . it will be an undoubted advantage, I think, to revert to the old concept of ‘defense’” (2). In the same book, Freud pointed out the utility of distinguishing the defense of isolation from repression, a distinction he had clearly defined in 1894 but which in 1926 he asserted “we are setting out to describe . . . for the first time” (2). I suspect that the history of DSM-III thru DSM-6 will echo Freud’s struggle with his brilliant discovery.