In summary, the present study, combined with the authors' prior work, suggests that a higher GR number may represent a vulnerability factor for the development of post-traumatic stress. However, caution must be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Although mean GR levels differed between the high and low PTSD symptom groups, there was substantial overlap between the groups, limiting the GR number as a screener for PTSD risk. Therefore, it would be extraordinarily premature to use these data to "screen out" military cadets or trainees for other high-risk occupations. Prior research has found a number of pre-, peri-, and posttraumatic variables to be associated with increased risk for PTSD (11); however, even combined, these risk factors do not account for a large percent of the variance in PTSD. PTSD is a complex disorder, and much more work is needed to reliably identify trauma victims at risk for developing the disorder. This is a critical need in the trauma literature, as without a reliable means by which to identify victims at highest risk of developing PTSD, our attempts to intervene to prevent symptom development are hampered. Further, testing of early interventions is also made difficult by our inability to reliably identify victims at high risk for PTSD, as it is difficult to show a beneficial effect of any intervention manipulation when relatively few recruited participants develop the disorder. It is likely that a combination of risk factors will provide the best predictive utility, and further research combining the preexisting GR number with other biological predictors, cognitive appraisals, and social support moderators may provide a risk screener with high sensitivity and specificity, increasing our ability to identify high-risk victims and aiding in the testing of early interventions.