A theory of stigma reduction that motivates many of the antistigma interventions is that changes in attitudes about mental illness favoring a scientific understanding of specific disorders increase help-seeking behavior and that increased help-seeking behavior will lead to treatment that will reduce distress and dysfunction, promote recovery, and secondarily reduce social stigmatization. The mechanism for reduced social stigma is secondary to the effect of treatment in reducing the signs and symptoms of mental illness, which people perceive as alien and threatening. Thus, the behaviors are the source of stigmatization, and treatment makes them less visible or eliminates them. This recovery after treatment is not represented in the General Social Survey study vignettes. The responses to the vignettes tell us how people feel about individuals with active mental illness—not how they would feel about the more relevant vignette of an individual who has recovered from a mental illness. Admittedly, it is difficult to assess attitudes about an individual who has recovered from mental illness, because that individual has little or none of the abnormal behaviors manifest in the illness. A vignette of a normally behaving person who professes a previous history of mental illness would be the proper stimulus to determine the social stigma associated with an individual who has been successfully treated for a mental disorder. Indeed, the authors point out in the paper's discussion that the 1999 U.S. Surgeon General's report cautioned that acceptance of neurobiological causation alone might cause a backlash of stigma if it were not coupled with successful treatment of mental illness.