The most effective strategies for treatment development in postpartum depression would therefore combine expertise in clinical trials, observational studies of mother-infant interactions, and neuroimaging. fMRI, in combination with carefully designed behavioral paradigms, could be used to delineate the neural mechanisms that compromise a depressed mother's ability to respond to her baby optimally. For example, investigators could test whether infant-related stimuli are less emotionally salient for depressed mothers than for nondepressed mothers, with emotional salience assessed by behavioral measures (e.g., reaction times) and the degree to which such stimuli engage "bottom-up" attentional circuitry, including the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex. Also, given the anhedonia characteristic of major depression, one could test the hypothesis that women with postpartum depression would be less likely than unaffected women to experience interactions with their infant as rewarding, with the latter assessed by self-report, behavioral measures, and striatal activation. The degree to which attentional versus reward-based deficits contribute to parenting difficulties can inform the development of new psychotherapeutic approaches and thus has direct treatment implications.