Dr. Chambers presents a pharmacologic interpretation of our research, suggesting that the data could reflect a neurobiological change unrelated to whether or not drug use impacts PTSD. In a different study, we too might have hypothesized this model. What Dr. Chambers does not take into account, however, is the fact that we employed a nonpharmacologic intervention. Our active treatment was a cognitive-behavioral trauma group psychotherapy, embedded within a self-medication framework. Not only was an examination of whether cognitive interventions change neurobiology beyond the scope of our study, we presently also lack the methods to conduct such a test. Further, since meta-analyses comparing psychopharmacologic findings (1) with behavioral findings have shown the superiority of behavioral treatments for PTSD, we could not conclude that biological processes alone drive treatment outcomes.