The gold standard for evidence in psychiatry, as elsewhere in medicine, is often considered to be the randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The use of blinding or masking plays a key role in these designs by addressing the problem of expectancy. First, if participants anticipate greater benefit from a particular treatment, they may be more likely to respond to it, which is considered a component of placebo response. Not surprisingly, participants have been found to report greater anticipated benefits when they were randomized to enter an active-comparator, versus a placebo-comparator, study (1). Likewise, raters may anticipate greater benefit from active drug and thus favor it in their ratings, whether consciously or unconsciously. Greater response rates in both active and placebo arms occur when a greater proportion of participants receive active treatment—that is, when patients (1) or raters (2) expect more participants to benefit.