Five years after the end of treatment, results were markedly better for 22 patients with borderline personality disorder in a multifaceted program focusing on the patient’s s mental state than for 19 who received standard treatment. The mentalization-based treatment included partial hospitalization, individualized medication, and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. During follow-up, suicide was attempted by 23% of the patients in the experimental group but 74% of the control group. Bateman and Fonagy (p. 631) found numerous other differences favoring mentalization-based treatment in use of services and medication, global functioning, and vocational status. Although the 18-month partial hospitalization program was followed by 18 months of outpatient group treatment, service use was greater only during the first period, and it was significantly less throughout follow-up. Dr. Kenneth Levy considers these findings in an editorial on p. 556.