According to an analysis by Thase et al. (p. 739) from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, outcomes for cognitive therapy as a second-step treatment, as augmentation or as an alternative to medication, were equivalent to those for medication. Patients who discontinued citalopram in the first treatment phase were randomly assigned to a different treatment or to citalopram plus an additional treatment. Cognitive therapy was received by 100 patients, either alone or combined with citalopram. Although cognitive therapy produced remission more slowly than medication, side effects were fewer. Random assignment in this STAR*D level was based on each patient’s treatment preferences, and only 26% of the patients accepted cognitive therapy as an option. Wisniewski et al. (p. 753) found that acceptance increased with greater education and with a family history of a mood disorder. Patients with panic disorder were less likely to accept cognitive therapy. Finding the minimum frequency of interpersonal psychotherapy needed to maintain remission in women with recurrent depression was the goal of Frank et al. (p. 761). Surprisingly, one session per month was just as effective for maintenance treatment as weekly or twice-monthly sessions. A difference in recurrence was found, however, between women who had received only psychotherapy before remission (26%) and those who had required addition of an antidepressant (50%). For patients hospitalized with severe depression, adding intensive psychotherapy to drug treatment produced a 70% response rate, compared to 51% for a group treated with medication plus intensive clinical management. In addition, Schramm et al. (p. 768) found that the rates of sustained response 12 months later were 67% and 36%, respectively. The higher rates were achieved with interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on interpersonal life events and social roles. These findings are reviewed in an editorial by Dr. Myrna Weissman on p. 693.