Research on the workplace costs of mood disorders has focused on major depression. In the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder caused much greater work loss. Kessler et al. (p. 1561) found that the persistence and severity of bipolar depression were greater than in major, or unipolar, depression. The difference affects workplace costs and underscores the need for correct differential diagnosis of depressive episodes, which can overshadow hypomanic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Adler et al. (p. 1569) report that asking depressed patients specific questions about their functioning at work revealed deficits in mental and interpersonal tasks, time management, output, and physical tasks. Improvement on these measures followed improvement in depression over 18 months, but job performance did not reach the levels of healthy subjects (see figure above). At baseline, 44% of the patients were taking antidepressants but were still clinically depressed. Workplace supports may help depressed patients overcome specific impairments, but more monitoring and adjustment of treatment are needed. An editorial by Dr. Howard Goldman on better treatment of depression and its effect on workplace function appears on p. 1490.