To encourage adherence to outpatient treatment by patients with severe mental illness, the courts and other government agencies sometimes offer legal or financial incentives. Swanson et al. (p. 1404) found that a history of violence does not preclude community treatment with such incentives, or leverage. Of 1,011 patients in public mental health service systems in five U.S. cities, about three-quarters reported receiving some form of leveraged community treatment, compared to about one-half of nonviolent patients. Violence increased the likelihood of legal leverage, e.g., probation, but not incentives involving social welfare, e.g., subsidized housing. Younger age, male gender, poorer functioning, and more frequent hospitalizations also independently increased the likelihood of receiving any type of leverage.