When Cade, a heroic prisoner of war doctor from 1942 to 1945, left Changi Prison, he was bursting with ideas about advancing knowledge of manic-depressive illness. Pursuing a toxic metabolite hypothesis, he first injected urine from manic patients into guinea pigs and, to counter the poor solubility of uric acid, added lithium urate. Later, when he injected lithium carbonate, he observed the animals becoming lethargic. It was Cade who then made the lateral arabesque in the approach to mental illness—from the gout/uric acid hypothesis to testing lithium as a sedating agent for mania. His 1949 article acknowledged Garrod but distinctly repositioned lithium in that new role.