Consistent with the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria approach, which aims to generate classifications of mental disorders based on specified domains of brain-behavior constructs, one way the field may progress is through investigation of key cognitive processes, including their occurrence, underlying circuits, course, and associated features across diagnostic categories. The focus of this book is on neurocognition in established schizophrenia; thus, it only touches on schizophrenia-related impairments in groups that are symptomatically at-risk but without psychosis. The rapidly evolving literature on clinical high risk reflects neurodevelopmental and dimensional aspects of cognitive impairments in the psychosis spectrum that are relevant to understanding both the development of underlying circuits and potential for early intervention, amelioration, or perhaps even prevention of psychosis. As the number and type of psychosis risk programs continue to grow, a challenge for the field will be the integration and reconciliation of their findings with the schizophrenia literature reviewed here. Within the Research Domain Criteria framework, it will be important to conduct empirical investigations of the construct validity of impairments in cognitive domains as indices of psychosis risk in order to inform our knowledge of the early course of psychosis, its functional significance, and potential to intervene.