The chapter on beneficence addresses the evidence for the efficacy and/or effectiveness of ECT in a variety of disorders, including depressive mood disorders, psychotic depression, mania, postpartum psychosis, schizophrenia, malignant catatonia, and parkinsonian disorder. Also described are the salient features of the effectiveness of ECT, namely, the provocation of convulsive activity and the continuation of treatment. This chapter, in many ways the center of the book, might be expected to be the most important, but it has some weaknesses. It tends to be encyclopedic, and there is no critical differentiation among the studies reported. Furthermore, there are several personal attestations, and these are, to my mind, a bit too much oriented toward celebrities and, for that matter, too celebratory of ECT. However, the basic content is important, namely, that the existing literature supports ECT as an effective treatment for many illnesses, particularly for severe depression when other treatment approaches fail and as a frontline treatment given at the beginning of an episode.