OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the hypothesis that the dopamine D2 receptor T allele (formerly described as the A1 allele) would be associated with poorer performance on memory and attention tasks following mild traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Thirty-nine patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 27 comparison subjects were genotyped. All subjects completed memory and attention tests, including the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task and the Continuous Performance Test. RESULTS: In both groups the T allele was associated with poorer performance on the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task. There was also a significant diagnosis-by-allele interaction on measures of response latency (Continuous Performance Test): the subjects with mild traumatic brain injury and the T allele had the worst performance. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms modulating central dopaminergic tone can affect cognitive outcome following mild traumatic brain injury.