This is a report of the findings of the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care in the area of alcohol and substance abuse. The council evaluates the medical and scientific world literature on the technology and methods of intervention used in delivering health care. For the effort reported in this book, a team of 13 investigators performed a comprehensive literature search of articles published between the 1950s and 2000, rated more than 1,600 studies for quality, and relied for their conclusions on those which were designed for validity, i.e., were randomized and controlled. The investigators’ approach, including methods, selection criteria, and search strategies, is described. They relied on DSM-IV and ICD diagnostic criteria, and their fundamental questions were whether a treatment was better than nothing, more effective than other methods, suited to certain types of patients, effective in dually diagnosed patients, or required an inpatient setting. The bulk of the pages are devoted to the presentation, in tabular form, of their findings, but they also summarize their findings and their conclusions. They provide a glossary, an appendix describing their quality checklist, and an appendix on their guidelines for measuring effect size.