In 1901, Auguste D, a 51-year-old woman, was hospitalized in Frankfurt because of outbursts of anger and loss of memory. After a steady downhill course, she died in April 1906. Her doctor was Alois Alzheimer, who was so puzzled by her illness that he arranged for her brain to be sent to him in Munich, where he described tangles and plaques in her cerebral cortex. Alzheimer was a colleague of Emil Kraepelin, Chairman of Psychiatry at the University of Munich. Kraepelin was impressed by these findings, perhaps in part because they were helpful in his dispute with Sigmund Freud as to whether there was a biological cause of psychiatric illnesses. However, Kraepelin’s real interests were in the long-term course of illnesses.