The culture, practice, and structure of medicine is rapidly changing. Pain medicine is a prime example. As Dr. Portenoy points out in the foreword, pain was once considered as a symptom of disease but has recently been conceptualized as a disease itself. Thus, there are many applicants for this essentially vacant property. The Neurological Basis of Pain stakes a claim for the neurologists. In much of the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australia, the anesthetists are the main contenders, but pain management is achieving adulthood and is in the process separating. About seven authors of this book list their attachment to a pain management unit, with no hint of subservience to neurology, anesthesiology, or other parental discipline.