Perhaps the most questionable part of the study is the lengthy section on group psychology, which offers a developmental view of the capacity of groups to function "democratically." Despite their claims of not offering a simplistic linear view of history, and of not being ethnocentric, the authors’ conclusions seem to us uncritical and highly ethnocentric. For example, they state that "nations without large numbers of logical, reflective individuals who can learn and master new challenges generally do not progress economically in the same way as nations with large numbers of individuals who have these capacities." This sounds like the Protestant ethic revisited. One wishes they had looked at Chomsky’s other work (5) showing how the word, symbol, and idea of "democracy" are used to represent what it is not, and how this usage functions to rationalize the most atrocious acts. More than seven million people, mainly civilians, have been killed in Korea, Vietnam, and in the first Gulf War, in places that many "literate" people cannot locate on a map. Time is getting short for figuring out how people can be "logical, reflective individuals," and Greenspan and Shanker provide only partial answers.