Interpretation during analysis and psychodynamic therapy now becomes primarily a means to detect, review, and modify meanings. "Meaning" refers to the myriad back-and-forth emotional and verbal transactions between patient and therapist that have relevance for symptoms, maladaptive defenses, and behaviors, as well as for personality strengths. However, Goldberg maintains—contrary to the late Stephen Mitchell (3)—that the analyst is in a privileged, usually optimal position to identify meaning and to recognize reality distortions. "All patients need both to be understood…but they need to have such understanding explained to them" (p. 194). The therapist, too, may never be sure of the truth, while mired in profound misunderstanding of the patient’s communications for sustained time periods. Therefore, the therapist must continue to "persistently puzzle" with the patient searching for new comprehension of both past and present sources of patients’ suffering. Derrida, the enemy of finality in attributing meaning, while not cited in the book, would approve of this stance were he still alive.