Steeped in attachment theory, Benjamin believes that nonresponders are stuck because they are reacting to internalizations. If therapists focus on these internalizations rather than the manifest symptoms, more progress will be made. According to her theory, patients give "gifts of love" to their internalized representations in order to stay in psychological proximity. They use one of three "copy processes"—"be like him or her," "act as if he or she is still there and in control," "treat yourself as he or she treated you." Once patients understand their history and gain insight into these patterns, then they will be able to block the pattern and "enable the will to change." Of course, giving up the fantasy of the IPIR is easier said than done.