We agree with the notion that, unfortunately, too few studies are available that provide data on the development of tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with a second-generation antipsychotic for 1 year or longer. This is particularly true for randomized controlled trials. Given the dearth of long-term studies and the clinical importance of tardive dyskinesia, it seems unlikely that we would have found additional studies in journals that are not indexed by MEDLINE, although we cannot be certain of this. In addition to our comprehensive MEDLINE search, we screened proceedings and abstracts of major psychiatric meetings and contacted the manufacturers of all second-generation antipsychotics for unpublished data. In our Methods section, we clearly delineated the criteria used for inclusion of the reviewed studies. These were open or controlled treatment with any second-generation antipsychotic (i.e., amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, sulpiride, ziprasidone, or zotepine) that involved at least 20 subjects, lasted 1 year or longer, and included data on newly identified cases of tardive dyskinesia or dyskinesia. Furthermore, we discussed the limitations of the reviewed studies regarding the open nature of most of the trials, differences in patient populations (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, diagnosis, severity/chronicity of illness, etc.), employed rating scales and rating intervals, definitions of "caseness," doses of second-generation antipsychotics, the use of high-dose first-generation antipsychotic agents in the trials with an active comparator, the lack of data in drug-naive and pediatric populations, and shortcomings in some of the statistical analyses.