Although kleptomania was described at the end of the 19th century (1–3), it remains a poorly understood behavioral disturbance. The exact prevalence is not known since this disorder is probably rare and because social stigma discourages patients from seeking treatment. Nevertheless, kleptomania is thought to be more frequent in females (4). Impulsivity, a major psychopathological construct, is a key feature of several psychiatric disorders, including kleptomania (5). Thus, pathological theft was included in the impulse-control disorder categories of DSM-IV and ICD-10. This discrete condition has been hypothesized to belong to several distinct clinical spectrums, including obsessive-compulsive, affective, and addictive disorders (6–8). These categorizations are supported not only by specific clinical and phenomenological features but also by the high rate of comorbidity of kleptomania with the major disorders in each spectrum. For example, kleptomania has been considered an antidepressive behavior because of its high rate of comorbidity with depression (9). In that view, kleptomania can be seen as a subject’s misadaptation to a depressive mood state and, as such, the disorder could be context dependent. This phenomenological explanation has been advocated since the beginning of the 20th century (10) and supported by more recent observations of distinct behavioral disturbances (e.g., kleptomania, compulsive buying, sexual compulsion) alternating with depression in the same subjects, with onset of the behavioral disturbance associated with relief of the mood state and cessation of the behavior associated with recurrence of depression (11). Most of the published reports have been based on single cases. Only three studies included groups of patients, and the number of patients in each study was small. Using a semistandardized interview designed specifically for their study, Presta et al. (12) found a high rate of mood disorders in 20 patients with kleptomania. Using a standardized structured interview, McElroy et al. (13) had previously found a similarly high rate of mood disorders in the same number of subjects. Sarasalo et al. (14) studied personality traits and found high sensation-seeking scores in 34 patients with kleptomania. However, to our knowledge, no controlled psychopathological study has been conducted, and impulsivity has never been specifically assessed in kleptomania. Therefore, we assessed impulsivity, sensation seeking, and mood in patients with kleptomania, compared to psychiatric patients without an impulse-control disorder or substance-related disorder and to patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. We hypothesized that patients with kleptomania would score higher on impulsivity than the other patients, independently of mood. A second aim was to explore the clinical features of kleptomania comorbidity, especially with mood, impulse-control, and substance-related disorders.