There are several chapters on the descriptions of psychopathology during evolution. Studies of higher primates such as monkeys, chimpanzees, and baboons have demonstrated behavior and personality traits suggestive of human psychopathology. Dr. Fábrega marshals the findings of comparative and evolutionary biology and paleoecology to hypothesize about the conditions that existed at stages of evolution, i.e., the ethological, precultural, protocultural, and early cultural phases of cognitive and language development. He theorizes about the external conditions such as the physical environment, social relations, and group relations and how they interacted with language and cognitive development during different time periods. With the development of culture came emotions such as shame, guilt, and pride, which changed the character of psychopathology in time.