Basically, Hedges seeks to hear clinical material within a developmental frame, which he parses into four listening perspectives and related diagnoses: 1) neurotic level issues associated with oedipal themes and object constancy, 2) narcissistic presentations associated with issues of self-integrity and esteem, 3) borderline pathology associated with issues of merger and separation, and 4) schizoid or psychotic organization associated with part-objects and inchoate sensory experience. In the examination of each of these, the territory becomes familiar. Neurosis is best served by Freudian theory, of which Hedges offers a perfunctory review. The chapters on narcissism—approximately 50 pages—are devoted to a good and concise review of Kohut’s work and examples of the clinical practice of self psychology. Those on borderline pathology—approximately 120 pages—draw on the work of a number of seminal authors—Jacobson, Mahler, Kernberg, Masterson, Bollas, Hartocollis, and Giovacchini, among others, with earlier reference to Klein and Winnicott. There is rich clinical material that is well integrated with the theoretical discussion. Hedges appears to use the term "scenario" to mean something enough akin to transference or transference enactment that I am not convinced there is utility in offering a different word. The final and developmentally most primitive listening perspective, related to schizoid and psychotic functioning, incorporates the work of Klein, Fairbairn, and Guntrip, then Searles, Bion, Little, Grotstein, and, again, Giovacchini and Bollas. Again, there is abundant clinical material. The penultimate chapter discusses controversies between Kohut and Kernberg as well as such diverse contributions as those of Langs, Schafer, Lacan, and Sartre.