Cognitive behavior self-help programs for bulimia nervosa have shown promise, but it is not clear whether the cognitive behavior approach is essential and which patients are most likely to benefit. Carter et al. (p. 973) assessed baseline characteristics of female patients with bulimia nervosa and assigned them to three treatment types: a self-help manual with a cognitive behavior focus, a self-help manual emphasizing assertiveness, and a waiting list. After 8 weeks, both groups given self-help manuals showed significant reductions in binge eating and purging, whereas patients on the waiting list did not. Episodes of binge eating or purging decreased by at least half for 54% of the women given the cognitive behavior self-help manual, 56% of those given the assertiveness self-help manual, and 32% of those on the waiting list. Greater improvement occurred for women with less baseline knowledge of eating disorders, more difficulty with intimacy, greater compulsivity, and greater perfectionism. Illness severity did not predict outcome.